|Named after||Johannes Kepler|
|Name in Saurian|| Bofcohaim (Bf)|
|Systematic name|| Unhextrium (Uht)|
|Location on the periodic table|
|Element above Keplerium||Meitnerium|
|Element left of Keplerium||Madelungium|
|Element right of Keplerium||Gibbsium|
|470.9096 u, 781.9637 yg|
|Atomic radius||186 pm, 1.86 Å|
|Covalent radius||194 pm, 1.94 Å|
|van der Waals radius||221 pm, 2.21 Å|
|s||467 (163 p+, 304 no)|
|Electron configuration||[Og] 5g18 6f14 7d8 8s2 8p2 9s1|
|Electrons per shell||2, 8, 18, 32, 50, 32, 16, 4, 1|
|Oxidation states|| −1, 0, +1, +3, +5, +7|
(a strongly basic oxide)
|First ionization energy||519.2 kJ/mol, 5.381 eV|
|Electron affinity||48.0 kJ/mol, 0.498 eV|
|Molar mass||470.910 g/mol|
|Molar volume||10.059 cm3/mol|
|Atomic number density|| 1.28 × 1021 g−1|
5.99 × 1022 cm−3
|Average atomic separation||256 pm, 2.56 Å|
|Melting point|| 840.25 K, 1512.46°R|
|Boiling point|| 2765.78 K, 4978.40°R|
|Liquid range||1925.53 , 3465.95|
|Triple point|| 840.25 K, 1512.46°R|
@ 14.169 μPa, 1.0628 × 10−7 torr
|Critical point|| 7428.01 K, 13370.42°R|
@ 32.7292 MPa, 323.013 atm
|Heat of fusion||8.308 kJ/mol|
|Heat of vaporization||242.246 kJ/mol|
|Heat capacity|| 0.05491 J/(g• ), 0.09884 J/(g• )|
25.858 J/(mol• ), 46.544 J/(mol• )
|Abundance in the universe|
|By mass|| Relative: 8.88 × 10−32|
Absolute: 2.98 × 1021 kg
|By atom||4.95 × 10−33|
Keplerium is the provisional non-systematic name of a theoretical element with the symbol Kp and atomic number 163. Keplerium was named in honor of Johannes Kepler (1571–1630), who developed laws of planetary motion. This element is known in the scientific literature as unhextrium (Uht), dvi-iridium, or simply element 163. Keplerium is the heaviest member of the cobalt family (below cobalt, rhodium, iridium, and meitnerium) and is the seventh member of the kelvinide series; this element is located in the periodic table coordinate 7d7.
Atomic properties Edit
Keplerium has the atomic mass 470.91 daltons, identical to the value of molar mass but in different magnitude. The atom has two times more mass than einsteinium and three times more mass than thulium. About 99.98% of its mass make up the nucleus, even though it is more than four magnitudes smaller than the atom itself. There are 467 particles that make up the nucleus, 74.1% of all the particles that make up the atom. That's because the nucleus contains far more particles in the same volume of space as electrons surrounding the nucleus.
Outside of the nucleus, there are 163 electrons residing in 9 shells and 26 orbitals, 23 are full. It is the fifth element in a row as well as the last consecutively to have an electron in the 9s orbital.
Keplerium, like every other element heavier than lead, has no stable isotopes. The longest-lived isotope is 467Kp with a fission half-life of 283⁄5 seconds. During fission, the element usually splits into three lighter nuclei and rarely into two nuclei like the examples.
The longest meta state has a half-life similar to the most stable ground state isotope –– 29.1 milliseconds for 469m2Kp.
Chemical properties and compounds Edit
Keplerium is assumed to have chemical properties similar to other cobalt family members such as gold. Since heavier members are less reactive than lighter members, then according to periodic trend, keplerium should be unreactive. But relativistic effects may make keplerium considerably more chemically active. It has an electronegativity of 1.03 and its first ionization energy is 5.38 eV, telling that keplerium is very reactive. Due to its reactivity, keplerium would be placed above cobalt in the periodic table of chemical reactivities. The most stable oxidation state is +5, although there are less stable states in odd numbers from −1 to +7. In aqueous solutions, Kp5+ is blue, Kp3+ is dark green, and Kp+ is yellow.
There are many examples of keplerium compounds, mainly in the +5 oxidation state. Keplerium pentachloride (KpCl5) is a white ionic salt which can be made by heating the metal with hydrochloric acid. Keplerium pentoxide (Kp2O5) is a dark brown powder with slight reddish tinge, produced by heating keplerium with strong reducing oxides. Another halide is keplerium pentafluoride (KpF5), which can be formed by the direct combination of keplerium and fluorine gas. There are couple examples of keplerium salts: Kp2(SO4)5 and Kp2(NO4)5.
Keplerium can form compounds other than +5 state, such as keplerium suboxide (Kp2O, +1), keplerium phosphide (KpP, +3), and keplerium heptafluoride (KpF7, +7). Keplerium can form an anion kepleride (Kp−), which can combine with reactive metals such as s-block metals to form intermetallic compound. Examples are potassium kepleride (KKp) and calcium kepleride (CaKp2).
Organokeplerium compounds can be synthesized by combining keplerium or oxides with hydrocarbons, sugars or alcohols. Unlike inorganic keplerium compounds, keplerium carries mainly +1 and +3 oxistates in organic compounds. Keplerium reacts with a hydrocarbon: propane to form tripropylkeplerium ((C3H7)3Kp); with a sugar: lactose to form keplerium lactose (C12H21O11Kp), and with an alcohol: ethanol to form ethylkeplerium ((C2H5)3Kp).
Physical properties Edit
Unlike all other members of the cobalt family and like copper and gold, keplerium appears as a vivid color. For this metal, it is orange, due to the same reason why gold (also in the copper family) is yellow. The quantum effects caused by high electromagnetic forces between the electrons in different orbitals oscillate or exchange energies at specified regions of the visible spectrum. For keplerium, electrons oscillate in the orange region of the spectrum while gold electrons oscillate in the yellow region, corresponding to their colors. If we remove yellow (gold) from orange (keplerium), then we would end up with red. For this reason, keplerium is nicknamed "red gold," although it is also a term for a gold-cobalt alloy.
Keplerium is more than two times denser than iridium, 46.8 g/cm3 vs. 22.6 g/cm3. The molar mass of keplerium is greater by a greater factor as the densities, 470.91 grams vs. 194.61 grams, resulting in a smaller molar volume than iridium. Keplerium atoms arrange to form hexagonal crystals, like iridium. The average separation between atoms is 2.56 angstroms, lighter greater than iridium (2.43 angstroms) but almost identical to gold (2.58 angstroms). In fact, keplerium has the smallest atomic separation, as well as most atoms in one cc (59.9 sextillion) of any transoganesson element.
The melting and boiling points of keplerium are much lower than any other group member. The orange metal melts at just 1512°R while it boils at 4978°R. For comparison, meitnerium, which is an element right above keplerium that have the highest melting and boiling points of any cobalt family member, melts at 5301°R and boils at 11775°R. The reason for such a low melting and boiling temperatures is because of the presence of an electron in the 9th shell after not completing the d-orbital in the seventh shell.
It is almost certain that keplerium doesn't exist on Earth at all, but it is believe to barely exist somewhere in the universe due to its brief lifetime. Every element heavier than iron can only naturally be produced by exploding stars. But it is likely impossible for even the most powerful supernovae or most violent neutron star collisions to produce this element through r-process because there's not enough energy available or not enough neutrons, respectively, to produce this hyperheavy element. Instead, this element can only be produced by advanced technological civilizations, virtually accounting for all of its abundance in the universe. An estimated abundance of Keplerium in the universe by mass is 8.88 × 10−32, which amounts to 2.98 × 1021 kilograms or about the mass of five billion people worth of keplerium, which is twice the mass of Pluto's largest moon Charon worth of keplerium.
To synthesize most stable isotopes of keplerium, nuclei of a couple lighter elements must be fused together, and right amount of neutrons must be seeded. This operation would be impossible using current technology since it requires a tremendous amount of energy, thus its cross section would be so low that it is beyond the technological limit. Even if synthesis succeeds, this resulting element would immediately undergo fission. Here's couple of example equations in the synthesis of the most stable isotope, 467Kp.
Imaginative applications Edit
Due to its similarity to gold, keplerium can be used as decorations and jewelry. It can also be used in electronics since it conducts electricity as well as gold. It is also great for forming alloys, such as with lighter cogeners copper and gold. However, due to its brief half-life of only 35 milliseconds, such applications would be impractical.