|Named after||Galileo Galilei|
|Name in Saurian|| Wucacoim (W)|
|Systematic name|| Unbinilium (Ubn)|
|Location on the periodic table|
|Family|| Helium family|
(Alkaline earth metals)
|Element above Galileum||Radium|
|Element left of Galileum||Newtonium|
|Element right of Galileum||Lavoisium|
|322.6720 u, 535.8094 yg|
|Atomic radius||199 pm, 1.99 Å|
|Covalent radius||203 pm, 2.03 Å|
|van der Waals radius||245 pm, 2.45 Å|
|s||320 (120 p+, 200 no)|
|Electron configuration||[Og] 8s2|
|Electrons per shell||2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 18, 8, 2|
|Oxidation states|| +1, +2, +4|
(a strongly basic oxide)
|First ionization energy||580.2 kJ/mol, 6.013 eV|
|Electron affinity||39.4 kJ/mol, 0.409 eV|
|Molar mass||322.672 g/mol|
|Molar volume||46.776 cm3/mol|
|Atomic number density|| 1.87 × 1021 g−1|
1.29 × 1022 cm−3
|Average atomic separation||427 pm, 4.27 Å|
|Crystal structure||Body-centered cubic|
|Melting point|| 956.38 K, 1721.48°R|
|Boiling point|| 1968.50 K, 3543.29°R|
|Liquid range||1012.12 , 1821.81|
|Triple point|| 956.38 K, 1721.48°R|
@ 417.28 Pa, 3.1298 torr
|Critical point|| 2844.11 K, 5119.39°R|
@ 107.4126 MPa, 1060.083 atm
|Heat of fusion||8.159 kJ/mol|
|Heat of vaporization||205.226 kJ/mol|
|Heat capacity|| 0.05190 J/(g•|
16.746 J/(mol• ), 30.142 J/(mol• ) ), 0.09341 J/(g• )
|Abundance in the universe|
|By mass|| Relative: 2.78 × 10−24|
Absolute: 9.29 × 1028 kg
|By atom||2.26 × 10−25|
Galileum is the provisional non-systematic name of an undiscovered element with the symbol G and atomic number 120. Galileum was named in honor of Galileo Galilei (1564–1642), father of modern science who discovered four largest moons around Jupiter using newly invented telescope, proving that other planets have moons; he also made few other astronomical discoveries such as sunspots and craters on the Moon. This element is known in the scientific literature as unbinilium (Ubn), eka-radium, or simply element 120. Galileum is the seventh alkaline earth metal and located in the periodic table coordinate 8s2.
Atomic properties Edit
Galileum contains 120 electrons in the cloud of 8 shells and 20 orbitals, both are factors of 120, resulting in the electron notation 120-8-20. Electrons surround the tiny nucleus compared to its atomic size, but contains almost all of the atom's mass. The nucleus has a nuclear ratio of 1.67, as it comprises of 200 neutrons and 120 protons.
Like every other trans-lead element, galileum has no stable isotopes. The most stable isotope is 320G with a half-life as long as 322 million years, alpha decaying to 316Og. All other isotopes have half-lives less than 8 months. 326G is another interesting isotope that has a half-life of 4.45 days, beta decaying to 326Ls. Galileum, like every other trans-calcium element, has meta states, which are excited states of isotopes. The longest-lived meta state is 313mG with a half-life of 2.3 days and decays to neutron-deficient isotope 313G by emitting gamma rays as well as alpha particles. The second longest-lived meta state is 323mG whose half-life is close to 313mG at 1.7 days. 323mG decays to 323G through isomeric transition.
Chemical properties and compounds Edit
Galileum has chemical properties similar to strontium and barium. Like all other alkaline earth metal elements, galileum exhibits a strong +2 oxidation state (divalent), meaning it can give up both electrons in its filled outermost orbital when combining with other element and formation of ions of same value when dissolved in water forming colorless solution like all other alkaline earth metals such as magnesium and calcium. However, due to shorter separation between outermost shell and the next shell further in, galileum is also the first alkali metal to exhibit a +4 oxidation state (tetravalent), meaning it can give up two 8s electrons and two 7p1/2 electrons. Galileum would quickly tarnish in the air to form an oxide and readily react with water to form a hydroxide.
Galileum can form a variety of compounds. Galileum(II) oxide (GO) is a pale orange solid most commonly formed when the metal exposes to air. A less common oxide is galileum(IV) oxide (GO2), which is a red solid. GO reacts with water to form galileum(II) hydroxide (G(OH)2), which is a white powder. Galileum(II) carbonate (GCO3) is a brown powder while galileum(II) sulfate (GSO4) is a white powder, obtained by reacting with carbonic acid and sulfuric acid, respectively.
Galileum(II) sulfide (GS) is a yellow crystalline solid similar in appearance to elemental sulfur. Galileum(II) fluoride (GF2) and galileum(II) chloride (GCl2) are both white crystalline solids similar in appearance to table salt. GF2 can be fluoridized to GF4 by dissolving in hydrofluoric acid while GCl4 is synthesized when GCl2 chloridizes in hydrochloric acid. G4+ is stable when bonded to fluorine and chlorine but not with bromine and iodine. Like fluorides and chlorides, GBr2 and GI2 are white crystalline solids soluble in water and respective acids but do not react.
If galileum reacts with organic compounds, organogalileum would result. Galilocene (Cp2G) is in the form of blue crystals, and like the metal itself, it is paramagnetic. Diphenylgalileum (Ph2G) is in the form of colorless crystals, which reacts when dissolved in water. Dimethylgalileum (G(CH3)2) and diethylgalileum ((C2H5)2G) are both colorless, flammable, and corrosive liquids. These two react with water to produce respective alkanes (methane and ethane) and galileum hydroxide.
- G(CH3)2 + 2 H2O → 2 CH4 + G(OH)2
- (C2H5)2G + 2 H2O → 2 C2H6 + G(OH)2
Physical properties Edit
Galileum, like most other metals, is a silver metal. Its density is 6.9 g/cm3, the densest of any other alkaline earth metal. Its high density for an s-block element is due to its high atomic mass. The molar mass of 322.7 g is directly derived from its atomic mass. Its molar volume is calculated by dividing molar mass by density. For galileum, this results in the molar volume of 46.8 cm3, when compared to other members, one mole of galileum takes up the most space. Based on its molar mass and density, one cubic centimeter of galileum contains 12.9 sextillion atoms, a bit more than estimated number of stars in the observable universe. Atoms that form body-centered cubic lattice are separated by 4.27 Å apart on average. Sound travels at 1029 m/s through thin rod of metal via vibrations. Like all other alkaline earth metals, galileum is attracted by externally applied magnetic field, so this metal is paramagnetic.
As expected from periodic trend, galileum has a lower melting but boiling points go up and down. Galileum has a melting point of 956 K (683°C), compared to 973 K (700°C) for radium and 1000 K (727°C) for barium. Its boiling point is 1968 K (1695°C), compared to 1413 K (1140°C) for radium and 2170 K (1897°C) for barium. Galileum requires less energy to melt this element than any of the lighter members of the group, but the amount of energy required to boil it is the second highest. Also galileum has the third widest liquid range of any alkaline earth metals at 1012 , which is the difference between melting and boiling points, as well as the second highest liquid ratio at 2.06, which is the boiling point per melting point ratio. However, the phase points are not the same at every pressure, as phase points mentioned are based on Earth's sea level pressure of 101.325 kPa (101325 Pa, 0.101325 MPa). Pressure has far more effect on boiling point than melting point, because boiling point is determined by its vapor pressure. Boiling point, one of two variables for liquid range and ratio, is directly proportional to ambient pressure. Lowering the ambient pressure enough would converge melting point and boiling point. As a result, at converged phase points, all three states are stable as solid, liquid, or gas at precisely 956.38 K (683.23°C), and at a pressure of 417.28 pascals. On the phase diagram, this point is called its triple point, termed because triple means three, as all three states are stable at that point. Whereas if we raise the pressure, we'll be going to the point opposite of triple point on the phase diagram, called the critical point. For galileum, it is 2844 K (2571°C) under a pressure of 107 MPa. When heated or pressurized beyond this point, the substance would exist as a supercritical fluid, which has properties of both liquid and gas, and as a result blurs the distinction between these two states.
It is certain that galileum is virtually nonexistent on Earth, but it is believe to exist somewhere in the universe. This element can only be produced naturally in tiny amounts by biggest supernovae or colliding neutron stars due to the requirement of a tremendous amount of energy. Additionally, this element can also be produced artificially in much larger quantities by advanced technological civilizations, making artificial galileum more abundant than natural galileum in the universe. An estimated abundance of galileum in the universe by mass is 2.77 × 10−24, which amounts to 9.29 × 1028 kilograms or about 50 Jupiters worth of galileum in mass.
To synthesize most stable isotopes of galileum, nuclei of a couple lighter elements must be fused together, and right amount of neutrons must be seeded. This operation would be very difficult since it requires a great deal of energy, thus its cross section would be so limited. Here's couple of example equations in the synthesis of the most stable isotope, 320G.
There had been couple of failed attempts to synthesize galileum without enriching it with neutrons. In the near future, galileum shall successfully be made here on Earth.