Symbol Fy
Atomic number 137
Pronunciation /'fīn•mān•ē•(y)üm/
Named after Richard Feynman
Name in Saurian Voødmudaim (Vø)
Systematic name Untriseptium (Uts)
Location on the periodic table
Period 8
Family Feynmanium family
Series Lavoiside series
Coordinate 5g17
Element below Feynmanium Lagrangum
Element left of Feynmanium Cavendishium
Element right of Feynmanium Chadwickium
Atomic properties
Subatomic particles 511
Atomic mass 377.1256 u, 626.2318 yg
Atomic radius 149 pm, 1.49 Å
Covalent radius 172 pm, 1.72 Å
van der Waals radius 170 pm, 1.70 Å
Nuclear properties
Nucleons 374 (137 p+, 237 no)
Nuclear ratio 1.73
Nuclear radius 8.61 fm
Half-life 22.788 s
Decay mode Spontaneous fission
Decay product Various
Electronic properties
Electron notation 137-8-23
Electron configuration [Og] 5g11 6f4 8s2 8p2
Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 43, 22, 8, 4
Oxidation states +4, +5, +6
(a mildly basic oxide)
Electronegativity 1.44
First ionization energy 624.9 kJ/mol, 6.476 eV
Electron affinity 54.2 kJ/mol, 0.562 eV
Physical properties
Bulk properties
Molar mass 377.126 g/mol
Molar volume 57.478 cm3/mol
Density 6.561 g/cm3
Atomic number density 1.60 × 1021 g−1
1.05 × 1022 cm−3
Average atomic separation 457 pm, 4.57 Å
Speed of sound 3388 m/s
Magnetic ordering Paramagnetic
Crystal structure Hexagonal
Color Gray
Phase Solid
Thermal properties
Melting point 589.26 K, 1060.67°R
316.11°C, 601.00°F
Boiling point 1608.36 K, 2895.05°R
1335.21°C, 2435.38°F
Liquid range 1019.10 K, 1834.38°R
Liquid ratio 2.73
Triple point 589.11 K, 1060.40°R
315.96°C, 600.73°F
@ 32.479 μPa, 2.4361 × 10−7 torr
Critical point 3286.59 K, 5915.86°R
3013.44°C, 5456.19°F
@ 44.0152 MPa, 434.398 atm
Heat of fusion 6.305 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization 158.766 kJ/mol
Heat capacity 0.05560 J/(g•K), 0.10008 J/(g•°R)
20.969 J/(mol•K), 37.744 J/(mol•°R)
Abundance in the universe
By mass Relative: 6.03 × 10−31
Absolute: 2.02 × 1022 kg
By atom 4.20 × 10−32

Feynmanium is the provisional non-systematic name of an undiscovered element with the symbol Fy and atomic number 137. Feynmanium was named in honor of Richard Feynman (1918–1988), who worked in the path integral formulation of quantum mechanics, quantum electrodynamics, and particle physics. This element is known in the scientific literature as untriseptium (Uts) or simply element 137. Feynmanium is the seventeenth element of the lavoiside series and located in the periodic table coordinate 5g17.

Relativistic problems Edit

Feynman, whom this element was named, noted that a simplistic interpretation of the relativistic Dirac equation runs into problems with electron orbitals at Z > 1/α = 137, suggesting that neutral atoms cannot exist beyond feynmanium, and that a periodic table of elements based on electron orbitals therefore breaks down at this point. However, a more rigorous analysis calculates the limit to be Z ≈ 173.

The main reason that 137 isn't the highest possible atomic number is right there in that one word - "simplistic". Feynmann's conjecture was based off what was essentially a slightly modified version of Bohr's atomic model, which we now know to be inaccurate. Furthermore, the prediction did not take into account quantum effects, which are extremely important on the atomic level.

When quantum electrodynamics and a full interpretation of relativity are considered, there appears to be no set upper limit to the mass of an atomic nucleus, although things do start to get weird around N=173 or so.

Note that even these calculations don't take into consideration the strong and weak nuclear forces (mostly because a full mathematical description of both of these forces is still an incredibly difficult problem to create). Given that these forces are perhaps the most important when considering atomic physics, it's likely that such a solution (if we ever find one) would force us to completely reconsider both of these calculations.

TL;DR: 137 is based on a simplified atomic model. Quantum electrodynamics predicts strange effects at N=173+, but no hard cap. Inability to fully understand strong and weak nuclear forces will probably cause us to have to recompute all of this in the future.

Atomic properties Edit

Feynmanium's electron configuration is assumed to be [Og] 5g17 8s2, but due to smearing of the orbitals due to the small separation between the orbitals, the electron configuration is [Og] 5g11 6f4 8s2 8p2. Electrons orbit the nucleus in eight energy levels. Nucleus conprises of 137 protons and 237 neutrons, corresponding to its nuclear ratio of 1.73. The atom masses 377.1 u and sizes at 1.73 angstroms.

Isotopes Edit

Like every other element heavier than lead, feynmanium has no stable isotopes. The longest-lived isotope is 374Fy with a half-life of only 23 seconds. It undergoes spontaneous fission, splitting into two lighter nuclei plus neutrons like the example.

Fy → 208
Pb + 133
Cs + 33 1

There are four other isotopes having half-lives of at least one second, all undergoing fission. Feynmanium has several meta states, the most stable is 378m1Fy (half-life: 2.8 minutes (167 seconds)).

Chemical properties and compounds Edit

Feynmanium's oxidation state are +4, +5, and +6 with +4 being most common. Its electronegativity on the Pauling scale is 1.44, meaning it is reactive, but not very. It can form hybrids, meaning it changes orbitals when bonded to other element.

In the elemental form, feynmanium slowly tarnishes in the air, reacts slowly in cold water but vigorously in hot water to form a hydroxide. Feynmanium forms basic oxide, meaning it neutralizes acids to form salt by liberating hydrogen gas. Fy4+ forms greenish yellow aqueous solutions.

Feynmanium slowly darkens in the air to form feynmanium(IV) oxide (FyO2), which is black and brittle. Another chalcide is FyS2, which is black crystalline solid. It can form halides of course, such as FyF6, FyCl5, FyBr4, and FyI4, fluoride and chloride are white ionic crystals while bromide and iodide are pale purple powdery crystals.

Feynmanium can form aqueous solutions, such as colorless feynmanium nitrate (Fy(NO3)4), and is a white salt when not in solution.

This metal can form organofeynmanium, such as Fy(C5H5)5 (cyclopentadienylfeynmanium) and (C5H11)5Fy (pentylfeynmanium).

Physical properties Edit

Feynmanium is a gray metal with a density of 6.6 g/cm3 and its speed of sound is 3388 m/s. In one cubic centimeter of metal, there are 1 × 1022 (10 sextillion) atoms, roughly the number of stars in the observable universe. If feynmamium has the average volume of an adult human, atoms number at 1.1 × 1027 (1.1 octillion). It forms hexagonal crystals that transforms to face-centered cubic when cooled to −183°F.

Feynmanium has a melting point of 601°F and boiling point 2435°F. Below its melting point, feynmanium exists as a solid state, at between melting and boiling points, it exists as a liquid state, and above its boiling point, it exists as a gaseous state. The triple point, condition where all three states of feynmanium coexist in equilibrium, is 600.73°F and 32.5 μPa; the critical point, minimum temperature and pressure where supercritical fluid of feynmanium is stable, is 5456°F and 44 MPa.

Occurrence Edit

It is almost certain that feynmanium doesn't exist on Earth at all, but it is believe to barely exist somewhere in the universe due to its very short lifetime. Every element heavier than iron can only naturally be produced by exploding stars. But it is virtually impossible for even the most powerful supernovae or most violent neutron star collisions to produce this element through r-process because there's not enough energy available or not enough neutrons, respectively, to produce this hyperheavy element. . Instead, this element can only be produced by advanced technological civilizations, virtually accounting for all of its abundance in the universe. An estimated abundance of feynmanium in the universe by mass is 6.03 × 10−33, which amounts to 2.02 × 1020 kilograms.

Synthesis Edit

To synthesize most stable isotopes of feynmanium, nuclei of a couple lighter elements must be fused together, and right amount of neutrons must be seeded. This operation would be impossible using current technology since it requires a tremendous amount of energy, thus its cross section would be so low that it is beyond the technological limit. Here's couple of example equations in the synthesis of the most stable isotope, 374Fy.

Bi + 132
Xe + 33 1
n → 374
Fm + 85
Rb + 32 1
n → 374
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
1 H He
2 Li Be B C N O F Ne
3 Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar
4 K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr
5 Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe
6 Cs Ba La Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn
7 Fr Ra Ac Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt Ds Rg Cn Nh Fl Mc Lv Ts Og
8 Nw G Ls Dm Ms T Dt Mw Pk By Bz Fn Dw To Pl Ah My Cv Fy Cw A Ed Ab Bu Du Sh Hb Da Bo Fa Av So Hz Wt Dr Lw Vh Hk Ke Ap Vw Hu Fh Ma Kp Gb Bq Hi Kf Bn J Hm Bs Rs
9 Ul Gr Mr An Hy Ck Do Iz Eg Af Bhz Mm Ch Qt Bhr Cy Lg Jk Hl Bw Rm Gk Ll Pi Sk Ie El Sv Me Jz Nm Abr Ea Sp Wg Sl Jo Bl En Ci Ht Bp Ud It Yh Jp Ha Vi Gc L Ko Ja Pp Gv Dc Bm Jf Km Aus St
10 Of Lb Lm Tyv Ps Vx Ng Mdl Va Ae Chn Kg Nz Ia Iq Ua Lo Ki Wc Put Spb Vs Prl Su Ic Zh Sd Le Cp Ml Tv Fj Wl Sa Kb Mh Tk Nr Hd Cld Is M Sun Mrs Aw Ks Jm Di Chy Ln Str Yt Zs Pv Mz Ve Sth Stl Kz Pas Mas Wb Asp Bt E Ct Tn Eh The Pe Zp Spr Ad Cc Io Lh Yn On Mtv Ob Tu Vyz Ol Vv Chk Arm Ff Tw Ka Nl Il Ur Kh Sdg Q Nv Mts Lf Mp Zg Iv X Mj Iy Ov Tq
11 Oa Oe Ai Dk Hn Lc Aut Et Tg Cok Mv Lx Uk Fp Gp Mq Sol Gm Pal Pc Jd Sud Vt Tr Id Em Mu Sey May Cor Mur Ber Td Gn Svc Agl Ey Fk Sog Asc Tt Bd Tks Bvg Uvg Nk Atf Chd Tkc Stp Cym Ly Rt Mi Ckr Sgl Tog Bin Nc Mov Sie Ny Nu Ao Psy Grs De Zw Cel Ft Nn Aj Bv Fi Afg Thl Cub Lib Od Hr Ep Pn Xr Ty Dn Oy Oc Tri Apl Hx Za Ot Uz Ais Om Bf Tz Gu Lk Bb Bvh Ws Lz Kw Mx Cg
12 Nik Nie Wk We Ug Sz Sw Cb Ig Mb Gy Wrg Dv Cool Gkz Gi Dj Vz Sy Ei Ro Peu Pan Nep Cmr Aa Tun Ay Cnd Gl Kd Bzl Kv Hp Dx Gs Agz Bc Bcm Gf Im Lt Mri Spi Col Pep Go Ow Dl Phl Sgp Trb Uy Clk Ik Tf Gt Ix Ph Qo Ak Nj Myl Ctc Mcg Dlw Ncl Scl Oh Wv Fd Wo Ns Mit Msu Az Nvd Aks Nx Ut Als Alb Clr Hw Tx Gg Ih Mon Iw Wy Or Ii Ndk Sdk Nsk Iu Vo Kn Ok Lus Kc Nyk Min Ntm Aub Gya Hit Lth Pg Slv Ew Cri Ib Dcr Wq Z Ql Ky Js Py Ue Wd Go Kl Ou Mf Op Uc Ip Ec Mis Alh Oo Dta Px Mim Vr Ub Puc Sx Nrd Dd Oi Jt Rl Mbu Gsp Dsp Glt Ei Clp Eo Ku Pq Yi Ld
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