Symbol Fa
Atomic number 148
Pronunciation /'fār•ā•dē•(y)üm/
Named after Michael Faraday
Name in Saurian Vuhutaim (Vu)
Systematic name Unquadoctium (Uqo)
Location on the periodic table
Period 8
Family Samarium family
Series Dumaside series
Coordinate 6f6
Element above Faradium Plutonium
Element left of Faradium Boltzmannium
Element right of Faradium Avogadrium
Atomic properties
Subatomic particles 556
Atomic mass 411.4110 u, 683.1640 yg
Atomic radius 129 pm, 1.29 Å
Covalent radius 141 pm, 1.41 Å
van der Waals radius 175 pm, 1.75 Å
Nuclear properties
Nucleons 408 (148 p+, 260 no)
Nuclear ratio 1.76
Nuclear radius 8.86 fm
Half-life 2.0051 μs
Decay mode Spontaneous fission
Decay product Various
Electronic properties
Electron notation 148-8-24
Electron configuration [Og] 5g18 6f6 7d2 8s2 8p2
Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 50, 24, 10, 4
Oxidation states +2, +3, +4, +5, +6, +8, +10, +12
(a mildly basic oxide)
Electronegativity 1.99
First ionization energy 838.3 kJ/mol, 8.688 eV
Electron affinity 77.2 kJ/mol, 0.800 eV
Physical properties
Bulk properties
Molar mass 411.411 g/mol
Molar volume 35.931 cm3/mol
Density 11.450 g/cm3
Atomic number density 1.46 × 1021 g−1
1.68 × 1022 cm−3
Average atomic separation 391 pm, 3.91 Å
Speed of sound 4989 m/s
Magnetic ordering Paramagnetic
Crystal structure Hexagonal
Color Teal
Phase Solid
Thermal properties
Melting point 607.17 K, 1092.91°R
334.02°C, 633.24°F
Boiling point 5510.26 K, 9918.47°R
5237.11°C, 9458.80°F
Liquid range 4903.09 K, 8825.56°R
Liquid ratio 9.08
Triple point 607.28 K, 1093.11°R
334.13°C, 633.44°F
@ 2.5617 × 10−12 aPa, 1.9214 × 10−32 torr
Critical point 14652.15 K, 26373.87°R
14379.00°C, 25914.20°F
@ 26.1092 MPa, 257.679 atm
Heat of fusion 5.640 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization 445.852 kJ/mol
Heat capacity 0.05689 J/(g•K), 0.10239 J/(g•°R)
23.403 J/(mol•K), 42.126 J/(mol•°R)
Abundance in the universe
By mass Relative: 8.45 × 10−34
Absolute: 2.83 × 1019 kg
By atom 5.40 × 10−35

Faradium is the provisional non-systematic name of a theoretical element with the symbol Fa and atomic number 148. It was named in honor of Michael Faraday (1791–1867), who pioneered experiments of electricity and magnetism and invented electric motor. This element is known in the scientific literature as unquadoctium (Uqo), eka-plutonium, or simply element 148. Faradium is the sixth member of the dumaside series, found in the third row of f-block (below samarium and plutonium); this element is located in the periodic table coordinate 6f6.

Atomic properties Edit

Faradium atomically contains 556 component particles (148 protons, 260 neutrons, 148 electrons). Faradium atom masses 411.4 daltons, four times that of silver atom. It has a 129 pm radius with 8 shells. There are six electrons in the 6f orbital behind the filled 5g orbital, as well as two in the 7d and two in the 8p1/2. Electrons in the last five orbitals are in resonance, meaning it has 18, 6, 2, 2, and 2 electrons in order of increasing distance from the nucleus. The resonance ratios are 3:1, 3:1, 1:1, and 1:1. This unique multiple resonances and ratios partly give rise to its highest liquid ratio of any element.

Isotopes Edit

Like every other element heavier than lead, faradium has no stable isotopes. The longest-lived isotope is 408Fa with a fission half-life of 2 microseconds according to the follow examples.

Fa → 2 184
W + 40 1
Fa → 181
Ta + 140
Ce + 36
Ar + 51 1

There are several meta states of faradium like every element beyond calcium. The longest-lived is 406mFa with a half-life of 42 minutes, more than a billion times more stable than the most stable ground state isotope. 406mFa undergoes fission like its parent ground state isotope.

Chemical properties and compounds Edit

Faradium is fairly an unreactive element because of its high ionization energy and high electronegativity. As a result, faradium is stable in the air and even in hot water and strong acids. Chemically, this element is not eka-plutonium despite it lies right below plutonium on the periodic table. It shows wide-ranging oxidation states from +2 all the way up to +12 with +6, +8, and +12 being more common. Faradate (FaO2−
) is an oxoanion of faradium.

Faradium forms two-element compounds with hydrogen, nitrogen, phosphorus, oxygen, sulfur, fluorine, and chlorine: FaH8 or FaH12, Fa3N8 or FaN4, FaP2 or Fa3P8, FaO4 or FaO6, FaS3 or FaS4, FaF8 or FaF12, and FaCl8 or FaCl12, respectively.

Faradium can also form compounds with more than two elements, including Fa(SO4)4 (white with slight pinkish tinge), Fa(BH4)6 (brown-tan), Fa(CN)6 (white crystals), and FaOF2 (white). Sodium faradate (Na2FaO4) is a red powder with a melting point of 1332°F; lead faradate (PbFaO4) is a reddish brown powder with a melting point of 1180°F. This element can even form organic compounds of faradium, called organofaradium; an example is tetraethylfaradium ((CH3CH2)4Fa), which is a colorless liquid; its liquid state ranges from −120°F to 287°F.

Physical properties Edit

Faradium is a soft, brittle, lustrous teal metal. Its molar volume is 35.93 cm3/mol and its molar mass is 411.41 g/mol; dividing molar mass by molar volume yields a density of 11.45 g/cm3. The sound travels through this metal at 3.1 mi/s and the crystals form tetragonal shape. The average atomic separation in the lattice is 3.91 Å (391 pm).

Faradium has a low melting point like lead but its boiling point is one of the highest, which produces an exceptionally high liquid ratio and wide liquid range. This metal can be melted using soldering iron (607 K, 633°F), but it requires the surface temperature of the Sun to boil it (5510 K, 9459°F). With the liquid ratio of 9.08, faradium is the only element with a higher liquid ratio than gallium (8.18), a metal that can be melted in the person's hand. It also has the widest liquid range of any element, which is the difference of 4903 K (8826°F) between its melting point and boiling point. How does metal have such a high boiling point for such a low melting point? The answer is that van der Waals attraction between faradium atoms in the crystal lattice is weak but the metallic bondings between atoms in the liquid is extremely strong caused by interplay between full 6f5/2, half-filled 7d3/2, and outermost shell containing full 8s and 8p1/2 orbitals. Despite its highest liquid ratio, its triple point pressure is the third lowest to gallium and avogadrium, 2.56 × 10−30 pascals.

Faradium is attracted by an externally applied magnetic field, a property called paramagnetism. Faradium becomes ferromagnetic when cooled to below 203 K (−94°F), which is the ability to create its own magnetic field like iron.

Occurrence Edit

It is almost certain that faradium doesn't exist on Earth at all, but it is believe to barely exist somewhere in the universe due to its brief lifetime. Every element heavier than iron can only naturally be produced by exploding stars. But it is likely impossible for even the most powerful supernovae or most violent neutron star collisions to produce this element through r-process because there's not enough energy available or not enough neutrons, respectively, to produce this hyperheavy element. Instead, this element can only be produced by advanced technological civilizations, virtually accounting for all of its abundance in the universe. An estimated abundance of faradium in the universe by mass is 8.45 × 10−34, which amounts to 2.83 × 1019 kilograms, or about asteroid Juno worth of this element in mass.

Synthesis Edit

To synthesize most stable isotopes of faradium, nuclei of a couple lighter elements must be fused together, and right amount of neutrons must be seeded. This operation would be impossible using current technology since it requires a tremendous amount of energy, thus its cross section would be so low that it is beyond the technological limit. Here's couple of example equations in the synthesis of the most stable isotope, 408Fa.

Pb + 162
Dy + 38 1
n → 408
Rg + 85
Rb + 36 1
n → 408
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
1 H He
2 Li Be B C N O F Ne
3 Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar
4 K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr
5 Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe
6 Cs Ba La Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn
7 Fr Ra Ac Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt Ds Rg Cn Nh Fl Mc Lv Ts Og
8 Nw G Ls Dm M T Dt Mw Pk By Bz Fn Dw To Pl Ah My Cv Fy Chd A Ed Ab Bu Du Sh Hb Da Bo Fa Av So Hr Wt Dr Le Vh Hk Ke Ap Vw Hu Fh Ma Kp Gb Bc Hi Kf Bn J Hm Bs Rs
9 Me Jf Ul Gr Mr Arm Hy Ch Do Ib Eg Af Bhz Me Zm Qtr Bhr Cy Gt Lp Pi Ix El Sv Sk Abr Ea Sp Wg Sl Jo Bl Et Ci Ht Bp Ud It Yh Jp Ha Vi Gk L Ko Ja Ph Gv Dc Bm Jf Km Of Lb
10 Io Ly Chy Dnk Hng Le Aus Et Tg Ck Mv Lg Uk Fp Gp Mq Mts Gm Pal Pc Jd Ie Ym Om Sd Ld Cy Mlt Tv Fj Wl So Kb Mh Tk Nr Sol Cld Vt Tr Id Em Mu Sy My Cor Mur Ber Trd Ged Svc Agl Dg Su Sh
11 Flk Sog Asc Trs Bsi Tks Bvg Uvg Fof Nku Atf Chd