|Named after||Paul Dirac|
|Name in Saurian|| Tahusaim (Th)|
|Systematic name|| Unpenttrium (Upt)|
|Location on the periodic table|
|Element above Diracium||Einsteinium|
|Element left of Diracium||Wittenium|
|Element right of Diracium||Lewisium|
|436.6234 u, 725.0302 yg|
|Atomic radius||125 pm, 1.25 Å|
|Covalent radius||134 pm, 1.34 Å|
|van der Waals radius||187 pm, 1.87 Å|
|s||433 (153 p+, 280 no)|
|Electron configuration||[Og] 5g18 6f11 7d2 8s2 8p2|
|Electrons per shell||2, 8, 18, 32, 50, 29, 10, 4|
|Oxidation states|| +1, +2, +3|
(a mildly basic oxide)
|First ionization energy||1190.2 kJ/mol, 12.335 eV|
|Electron affinity||7.6 kJ/mol, 0.079 eV|
|Molar mass||436.623 g/mol|
|Molar volume||37.742 cm3/mol|
|Atomic number density|| 1.38 × 1021 g−1|
1.60 × 1022 cm−3
|Average atomic separation||397 pm, 3.97 Å|
|Melting point|| 1202.46 K, 2164.43°R|
|Boiling point|| 2510.32 K, 4518.58°R|
|Liquid range||1307.86 , 2354.15|
|Triple point|| 1202.47 K, 2164.44°R|
@ 167.23 mPa, 0.0012544 torr
|Critical point|| 5980.25 K, 10764.45°R|
@ 188.1941 MPa, 1857.338 atm
|Heat of fusion||12.859 kJ/mol|
|Heat of vaporization||240.959 kJ/mol|
|Heat capacity|| 0.05447 J/(g• ), 0.09804 J/(g• )|
23.782 J/(mol• ), 42.807 J/(mol• )
|Abundance in the universe|
|By mass|| Relative: 8.69 × 10−33|
Absolute: 2.91 × 1020 kg
|By atom||5.23 × 10−34|
Diracium is the provisional non-systematic name of a theoretical element with the symbol Dr and atomic number 153. Diracium was named in honor of Paul Dirac (1902–1984), who made fundamental contributions to the early development of both quantum mechanics and quantum electrodynamics. This element is known in the scientific literature as unpenttrium (Upt), eka-einsteinium, or simply element 153. Diracium is the eleventh member of the dumaside series, found in the third row of f-block (below holmium and einsteinium); this element is located in the periodic table coordinate 6f11.
Atomic properties Edit
Diracium atom has 24 orbitals in 8 shells containing 153 electrons surrounding the nucleus comprising of 433 nucleons (153 protons, 280 neutrons) and the nuclear ratio of 1.83. Due to spin-orbit coupling there are three electrons in the d-orbital, leaving f-orbital one electron short of its exact location on the periodic table.
Like every other element heavier than lead, diracium has no stable isotopes. The longest-lived isotope is 433Dr with a brief half-life of 17.3 milliseconds. It undergoes spontaneous fission, splitting into two or three lighter nuclei plus neutrons like the examples.
Diracium has several meta states. The longest lived is 435mDr with a half-life of just 564 microseconds, less than 1⁄30 the half-life of 433Dr.
Chemical properties and compounds Edit
Diracium's chemical properties are very different from lighter homologue einsteinium due to its much smaller atomic size and much higher ionization energies. The stable oxistates are just +1, +2 and +3. The electron affinity is 7.6 kJ/mol, which is low. Thus due to relativistic effects, diracium is extremely unreactive, meaning the metal is very stable in air, as well as in acids and alkalis.
Diracium would react with strong reducing oxides such as dichlorine monoxide at high temperatures to form Dr2O, which is an orange-brown brittle solid. DrF3 (white) and DrCl3 (white) can be made by heating diracium with free fluorine and chlorine gases, respectively. Other halides are DrBr (yellow) and DrI (pink), which are more difficult to make. Halides can even combine with oxygen to form oxyhalides, such as Dr3OBr. Despite its unreactivity, organic compounds of diracium (organodiracium) are hard to make. An example is ethyldiracium (C2H5Dr), which is a colorless liquid, obtained by electrifying diracium oxide in the mixture of ethanol and hydrochloric acid.
Physical properties Edit
Diracium is a grayish white shiny metal that never tarnishes in the air. One mole of diracium weighs 437 grams, close to a pound (approx. 454 grams), and takes up 38 cubic centimeters or about 21⁄3 cubic inches of space. If we divide molar mass in grams by molar volume in cubic centimeters, the answer would be 11.6 g/cm3, that is, its density. Diracium atoms arrange to form hexagonal crystals and is paramagnetic along with 64% of other elements.
Diracium liquifies at 1202 K and vaporizes at 2510 K, resulting in its liquid ratio of 2.09. During these processes, one mole of diracium requires 13 kJ and 241 kJ of energy, respectively. One mole of diracium absorbs 24 joules to heat the metal by 1 K, while it releases that same amount to cool by 1 K.
It is almost certain that diracium doesn't exist on Earth at all, but it is believe to barely exist somewhere in the universe due to its brief lifetime. Every element heavier than iron can only naturally be produced by exploding stars. But it is likely impossible for even the most powerful supernovae or most violent neutron star collisions to produce this element through r-process because there's not enough energy available or not enough neutrons, respectively, to produce this hyperheavy element. Instead, this element can only be produced by advanced technological civilizations, virtually accounting for all of its abundance in the universe. An estimated abundance of diracium in the universe by mass is 8.69 × 10−33, which amounts to 2.91 × 1020 kilograms or about 30% the Ceres worth of diracium.
To synthesize most stable isotopes of diracium, nuclei of a couple lighter elements must be fused together, and right amount of neutrons must be seeded. This operation would be impossible using current technology since it requires a tremendous amount of energy, thus its cross section would be so low that it is beyond the technological limit. Even if synthesis succeeds, this resulting element would immediately undergo fission. Here's couple of example equations in the synthesis of the most stable isotope, 433Dr.