Symbol Bu
Atomic number 142
Pronunciation /'but•lər•ō•vē•(y)üm/
Named after Aleksandr Butlerov
Name in Saurian Rikcohelaim (Ri)
Systematic name Unquadbium (Uqb)
Location on the periodic table
Period 8
Family Butlerovium family
Series Lavoiside series
Coordinate 5g22
Element left of Butlerovium Abeggium
Element right of Butlerovium Dumasium
Atomic properties
Subatomic particles 539
Atomic mass 388.2167 u, 644.6490 yg
Atomic radius 140 pm, 1.40 Å
Covalent radius 163 pm, 1.63 Å
van der Waals radius 171 pm, 1.71 Å
Nuclear properties
Nucleons 385 (142 p+, 243 no)
Nuclear ratio 1.71
Nuclear radius 8.69 fm
Half-life 23.754 s
Decay mode Cluster decay
Decay product 337Mw
Electronic properties
Electron notation 142-8-24
Electron configuration [Og] 5g16 6f2 7d2 8s2 8p2
Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 48, 20, 10, 4
Oxidation states +1, +2, +3, +4, +5, +6
(a mildly basic oxide)
Electronegativity 1.68
First ionization energy 707.2 kJ/mol, 7.329 eV
Electron affinity 52.9 kJ/mol, 0.548 eV
Physical properties
Bulk properties
Molar mass 388.217 g/mol
Molar volume 67.201 cm3/mol
Density 5.777 g/cm3
Atomic number density 1.55 × 1021 g−1
8.96 × 1021 cm−3
Average atomic separation 481 pm, 4.81 Å
Speed of sound 2427 m/s
Magnetic ordering Paramagnetic
Crystal structure Face-centered cubic
Color Brownish gray
Phase Solid
Thermal properties
Melting point 1088.22 K, 1958.79°R
815.07°C, 1499.12°F
Boiling point 2244.17 K, 4039.51°R
1971.02°C, 3579.84°F
Liquid range 1155.96 K, 2080.72°R
Liquid ratio 2.06
Triple point 1088.20 K, 1958.76°R
815.05°C, 1499.09°F
@ 175.38 mPa, 1.3155 × 10−5 torr
Critical point 4253.62 K, 7656.51°R
3980.47°C, 7196.84°F
@ 32.1621 MPa, 317.417 atm
Heat of fusion 10.736 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization 220.323 kJ/mol
Heat capacity 0.05656 J/(g•K), 0.10181 J/(g•°R)
21.959 J/(mol•K), 39.526 J/(mol•°R)
Abundance in the universe
By mass Relative: 4.65 × 10−31
Absolute: 1.56 × 1022 kg
By atom 3.15 × 10−32

Butlerovium is the provisional non-systematic name of an undiscovered element with the symbol Bu and atomic number 142. Butlerovium was named in honor of Aleksandr Butlerov (1828–1886), who developed the theory of chemical structure. He also incorporated double bonds into structure formulae. This element is known in the scientific literature as unquadbium (Uqb) or simply element 142. Butlerovium is the last element of the lavoiside series and located in the periodic table coordinate 5g22.

Atomic properties Edit

Butlerovium has 142 protons, 243 neutrons, and 142 electrons in atoms, with protons and neutrons making up the nucleus at its center while electrons revolve around the nucleus. Butlerovium has two electrons occupying in the f-orbital, consistent with being the second element of the dumaside series in f-block. However, the g-orbital is not yet completed as it needs two more to complete the orbital. Due to spin-orbit coupling due to relativistic effects, there are two electrons in the d-orbital and two in the outermost p-orbital. The electron configuration according to Dirac-Fock calculation is [Og] 5g16 6f2 7d2 8s2 8p2 and the electron notation is 142-8-24.

Isotopes Edit

Like every other element heavier than lead, butlerovium has no stable isotopes. The longest-lived isotope is 385Bu with a half-life of 23.75 seconds. It cluster decays to 337Mw by emitting two oxygen-16 nuclei plus 32 neutrons. Two other isotopes have half-lives of at least a second: 387Bu (4.24 seconds) and 382Bu (2.49 seconds). Like most other elements, butlerovium has metastable isomers, the most stable is 387m1Bu (t½ = 4.57 min).

Chemical properties and compounds Edit

Butlerovium's electronegativity is 1.68 and has oxidation states ranging from +1 to +6, with +4 and +6 being most common.

There are oxides of butlerovium: BuO, BuO2 or BuO3, formed when metal exposes to the air rich in oxygen. Butlerovium can react readily with halogens and acids. Examples of halides are BuCl6, BuF4, BuBr, and BuI. Butlerovium can form aqueous solutions such as sulfate (BuSO4) and nitrate (BuNO3). Other compounds include BuS, BuP, and BuN.

Physical properties Edit

Butlerovium is a brownish gray brittle solid metal at room temperature (77°F) that shows brown luster. The molar mass (same as atomic mass in value) is 388.22 g/mol, while its molar volume is 67.20 cm3/mol. Dividing molar mass by molar volume yields a density of 5.7 g/cm3, slightly denser than the densest planet in our solar system –– Earth. The average separation between butlerovium atoms is 481 pm (4.81 Å) and there are nine sextillion atoms in one cubic centimeter of metal.

Its liquid state ranges from 1499°F (1088 K) to 3580°F (2244 K). The amounts of energy absorbed causing phase transitions are related to its phase points. Its heat of fusion is 10.7 kJ/mol while its heat of vaporization is 220.3 kJ/mol, meaning that it requires 22 times more energy for boiling to convert from liquid to gas than converting from solid to liquid. It releases exactly the same amounts of energy upon reversing phase transitions.

Occurrence Edit

It is almost certain that butlerovium doesn't exist on Earth at all, but it is believe to barely exist somewhere in the universe due to its brief lifetime. Every element heavier than iron can only naturally be produced by exploding stars. But it is likely impossible for even the most powerful supernovae or most violent neutron star collisions to produce this element through r-process because there's not enough energy available or not enough neutrons, respectively, to produce this hyperheavy element. Instead, this element can only be produced by advanced technological civilizations, virtually accounting for all of its abundance in the universe. An estimated abundance of butlerovium in the universe by mass is 4.65 × 10−31, which amounts to 1.56 × 1022 kilograms or about 54 Pluto masses worth of butlerovium.

Synthesis Edit

To synthesize most stable isotopes of butlerovium, nuclei of a couple lighter elements must be fused together, and right amount of neutrons must be seeded. This operation would be impossible using current technology since it requires a tremendous amount of energy, thus its cross section would be so low that it is beyond the technological limit. Here's couple of example equations in the synthesis of the most stable isotope, 385Bu.

Bi + 141
Pr + 35 1
n → 385
Bh + 80
Br + 26 1
n → 385
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
1 H He
2 Li Be B C N O F Ne
3 Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar
4 K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr
5 Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe
6 Cs Ba La Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn
7 Fr Ra Ac Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt Ds Rg Cn Nh Fl Mc Lv Ts Og
8 Nw G Ls Dm Ms T Dt Mw Pk By Bz Fn Dw To Pl Ah My Cv Fy Cw A Ed Ab Bu Du Sh Hb Da Bo Fa Av So Hz Wt Dr Lw Vh Hk Ke Ap Vw Hu Fh Ma Kp Gb Bq Hi Kf Bn J Hm Bs Rs
9 Ul Gr Mr An Hy Ck Do Iz Eg Af Bhz Mm Ch Qt Bhr Cy Lg Jk Hl Bw Rm Gk Ll Pi Sk Ie El Sv Me Jz Nm Abr Ea Sp Wg Sl Jo Bl En Ci Ht Bp Ud It Yh Jp Ha Vi Gc L Ko Ja Pp Gv Dc Bm Jf Km Aus St
10 Of Lb Lm Tyv Ps Vx Ng Mdl Va Ae Chn Kg Nz Ia Iq Ua Lo Ki Wc Put Spb Vs Prl Su Ic Zh Sd Le Cp Ml Tv Fj Wl Sa Kb Mh Tk Nr Hd Cld Is M Sun Mrs Aw Ks Jm Di Chy Ln Str Yt Zs Pv Mz Ve Sth Stl Kz Pas Mas Wb Asp Bt E Ct Tn Eh The Pe Zp Spr Ad Cc Io Lh Yn On Mtv Ob Tu Vyz Ol Vv Chk Arm Ff Tw Ka Nl Il Ur Kh Sdg Q Nv Mts Lf Mp Zg Iv X Mj Iy Ov Tq
11 Oa Oe Ai Dk Hn Lc Aut Et Tg Cok Mv Lx Uk Fp Gp Mq Sol Gm Pal Pc Jd Sud Vt Tr Id Em Mu Sey May Cor Mur Ber Td Gn Svc Agl Ey Fk Sog Asc Tt Bd Tks Bvg Uvg Nk Atf Chd Tkc Stp Cym Ly Rt Mi Ckr Sgl Tog Bin Nc Mov Sie Ny Nu Ao Psy Grs De Zw Cel Ft Nn Aj Bv Fi Afg Thl Cub Lib Od Hr Ep Pn Xr Ty Dn Oy Oc Tri Apl Hx Za Ot Uz Ais Om Bf Tz Gu Lk Bb Bvh Ws Lz Kw Mx Cg
12 Nik Nie Wk We Ug Sz Sw Cb Ig Mb Gy Wrg Dv Cool Gkz Gi Dj Vz Sy Ei Ro Peu Pan Nep Cmr Aa Tun Ay Cnd Gl Kd Bzl Kv Hp Dx Gs Agz Bc Bcm Gf Im Lt Mri Spi Col Pep Go Ow Dl Phl Sgp Trb Uy Clk Ik Tf Gt Ix Ph Qo Ak Nj Myl Ctc Mcg Dlw Ncl Scl Oh Wv Fd Wo Ns Mit Msu Az Nvd Aks Nx Ut Als Alb Clr Hw Tx Gg Ih Mon Iw Wy Or Ii Ndk Sdk Nsk Iu Vo Kn Ok Lus Kc Nyk Min Ntm Aub Gya Hit Lth Pg Slv Ew Cri Ib Dcr Wq Z Ql Ky Js Py Ue Wd Go Kl Ou Mf Op Uc Ip Ec Mis Alh Oo Dta Px Mim Vr Ub Puc Sx Nrd Dd Oi Jt Rl Mbu Gsp Dsp Glt Ei Clp Eo Ku Pq Yi Ld
13 Iso Psi Ery Eri Auo Tyo Euh Oth Ain Cap Ade Teb Beh Fb Mdf Aeg Tqq Skl Tyr Bg Ri Prt Sq Ax Jx Hyo Gep Ij Trv Dh Jn Cen Ces Btl Mth Ek Ldm Cls Tel Nid Bed Ved Ss Nrv Nso Hat Log Cyl Thy
Gh Dp If